Dental Stem Cells for Therapeutic Purposes

Brazilian and American scientists have made induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from stem cells found in teeth. These adult stem cells are immature enough so that forming iPSCs from that is relatively easy.

Human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSCs) are found in dental pulp. Dental pulp is the soft living tissue inside a tooth, and it houses various stem cell populations. These stem cells express a whole cluster of genes normally found in very young and immature cells. Therefore, IDPSCs are “primal” cells that are very young and undifferentiated.

According to Dr. Patricia C.B. Bealtrao-Braga of the National Institute of Science and Technology in Stem and Cell Therapy in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, human IDPSCs are easily isolated from adult or baby teeth during routine dental visits. IDPSCs are not viewed as foreign by the immune system and can be used in the absence of any drugs that suppress the immune system. They have very valuable cell therapy applications, including the reconstruction of large cranial defects.

Another research project in the Republic of Korea, at the college of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Republic of Korea have examined a stem cell population from third molars called human dental papilla stem cells (DpaSCs). DpaSCs can form dentin and dental pulp, but they also have biological features that are similar to those of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

MSCs have been very heavily studied. While these stem cells have remarkable therapeutic capabilities, they have the disadvantage of only being able to grow in culture or a short period of time. After growing in culture for about a week, MSCs tend to go to sleep and not grow anymore.

DPaSCs, however, have a remarkable capacity to grow in culture. Data from work done in the laboratory of Gyu-Jin Ryo has shown they can grow for a longer period of time than MSCs in culture without going to sleep. Therefore, they not only can form a greater number of progeny, but they can also, potentially, form larger tissues and structures.

Based on their increased culture capabilities, DPaSCs can provide a source of stem cells for tooth regeneration and repair and, possibly, a source of cells for a wide variety of regenerative medical applications.