Neural Stem Cell Proliferation Increased By Herbal Extract

When it comes to herbal medicine, count me a skeptic. Some people swear by many herbs, but when these same herbs are objectively tested under controlled conditions, they fail spectacularly or they only show modest effects.

For example, a lady in my church is absolutely certain that Echinacea will cure your cold. However, a paper by Barrett in Phytomedicine, 2003 Jan;10(1):66-86 reviews several Echinacea trials and concludes that: “Although suggestive of modest benefit, these trials are limited both in size and in methodological quality. Hence, while there is a great deal of moderately good-quality scientific data regarding E. purpurea, effectiveness in treating illness or in enhancing human health has not yet been proven beyond a reasonable doubt.” Also the prestigious Cochrane database has examined many human trials that tested Echinacea and concluded that “Echinacea preparations tested in clinical trials differ greatly. There is some evidence that preparations based on the aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea might be effective for the early treatment of colds in adults but results are not fully consistent. Beneficial effects of other Echinacea preparations, and for preventative purposes might exist but have not been shown in independently replicated, rigorous randomized trials.” For this study, see Linde K, Barrett B, Wölkart K, Bauer R, Melchart D. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD000530,

When it comes to Ginkgo biloba extracts, the use of Ginkgo for age-related dementia has a veritable history, but the Cochrane reviews concluded: “The evidence that Ginkgo biloba has predictable and clinically significant benefit for people with dementia or cognitive impairment is inconsistent and unreliable.” See Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD003120. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003120.pub3.

Therefore, it is with some skepticism that I relate the following report to you.

Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus on adult mammals are responsible for learning and memory. These cells stop dividing during severe depression and dementia and expand during learning.

Hippocamus anatomy

The natural growth of these stem cells is insufficient to replenish cells after a severe stroke or in the event of serious brain disease. Therefore finding a way to stimulate these is important from a clinical standpoint.

Professor Yuliang Wang from Weifang Medical University has used an extract of Ginkgo biloba called EGb761 to treat rats with dementia. In their hands, this materials seems to safely treat memory loss and cognitive impairment (see Zhang Z, Peng D, Zhu H, Wang X. Experimental evidence of Ginkgo biloba extract EGB as a neuroprotective agent in ischemia stroke rats. Brain Res Bull. 2012 Feb 10;87(2-3):193-8).

Wang and his co-workers took this work one step further and examined the effects of EGb761 on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia.

According to Wang and others, the extract promoted and prolonged the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia. The cells continued to proliferate for four months and improved learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia.

If you do not believe it, see Wang JW and others, Neural Regeneration Research 2013; 8 (18): 1655-1662.

Artificial Bones From Umbilical Cord Stem Cells

I am back from vacation. We visited some colleges in Indiana for my daughter who will be a senior this year. She really liked Taylor University and Anderson University. We’ll see if the tuition exchange works out.

Now to blogging.

Scientists from Granada, Spain have patented a hew biomaterial that consists of activated carbon cloth that just happens to be able to support the growth of cells that have the ability to regenerate bone. These results came from experiments that were conducted outside any living animals, but they hope to confirm these results in a living animal in the near future.

This new biomaterial facilitates the growth of bone-making cells derived from umbilical cord stem cells. This activated carbon cloth acts as a scaffold for cells that differentiate into “osteoblasts,” which are bone-building cells. This activated carbon cloth gives the osteoblasts a proper surface upon which to promote the growth of new bone.

Bone loss as a result of cancer, trauma, or degenerative bone diseases requires replacement bone to heal to damaged bone. Making new bone in the laboratory that can be transplanted is an optimal strategy for treating these patients.

Even though this laboratory-made bone was not used in living laboratory animals to date, the laboratory results look quite impressive. In the future, such techniques could help manufacture medicines or other sources of material to repair bone or lost cartilage. Once such artificial bone has been made in the laboratory, the Spanish team hopes to transplant it into rats or rabbits to determine if it can regenerate bone in such creatures.

Presently, no materials exist to replace lost bone. The method used to make bone by the research team from Granada uses a three-dimensional support that facilitates the production of those cell types that regenerate bone without the need for additional growth factors.

The growth of these umbilical cord stem cells on activated carbon cloth produced a product that could produce organic bone, but also mineralize the organic bone matrix. This patent could have numerous clinical applications in regenerative medicine and the Granada group hopes to obtain funding to continue this work and achieve their ultimate objective: to regenerate bones by implanting biomaterial in patients with bone diseases.