According to the Center for Disease Control, stroke is a leading cause of death in the United States. Fortunately stroke has been the subject of significant research efforts, but unfortunately, developing treatments that ensure complete recovery for stroke patients is extremely challenging. The challenge increase when more than a few hours have passed between onset of the stroke and administration of treatment.
Thus a new study released in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine has generated more than a little excitement. This study indicates that indicates that endothelial precursor cells (EPCs), which are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and rarely in peripheral blood, can make a significant difference for these patients’ recovery. The contribution of EPCs even extends to the later stages of stroke. In animal studies, EPC implantation into the brain after a stroke minimized the initial brain injury and helped repair the stroke damage.
“Previous studies indicated that stem/progenitor cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) improved functional recovery in stroke models,” noted Branislava Janic, Ph.D., a member of Henry Ford Health System’s Cellular and Molecular Imaging Laboratory in Detroit and lead author of the study. “We wanted to examine the effect of hUCB-derived AC133+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on stroke development and resolution in rats.”
Dr. Janic and his team injected EPCs into the brains of rats that had suffered strokes. When they later examined the animals using MRI, they found that the transplanted EPCs had selectively migrated to the injured area, stopped the tissue damage from spreading, initiated regeneration, and affected the time course for stroke resolution. The lesion size in the brain was significantly decreased at a dose of 10 million cells, if the cells were given as early as seven days after the onset of the stroke.
“This led us to conclude that cord blood-derived EPCs can significantly contribute to developing more effective treatments that allow broader time period for intervention, minimize the initial brain injury and help repair the damage in later post-stroke phases,” Dr. Janic said.
“The early signs of stroke are often unrecognized, and many patients cannot take advantage of clot-busting treatments within the required few hours after stroke onset,” said Anthony Atala, M.D., editor of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. “In this animal study, a combination of stem cells shows promise for healing stroke damage when administered 24 hours after the stroke.”