Researchers from the Centre for Stem Cell Research at the University of Adelaide have shown that stem cells taken from teeth can differentiate in culture into cells that resemble brain cells. This work suggests that stem cells from teeth might someday be sources of regenerative material to treat brain-specific maladies, such as stroke, for instance.
According to Dr. Kylie Ellis, Commercial Development Manager with the University’s commercial arm, Adelaide Research & Innovation (ARI), these stem cells do not form full-fledged neurons, but it is only a matter of time before this group figures out the right culture conditions that will make these cells form true neurons.
“Stem cells from teeth have great potential to grow into new brain or nerve cells, and this could potentially assist with treatments of brain disorders, such as stroke,” said Ellis. This work has been published in the journal Stem Cell Research & Therapy.
“The reality is, treatment options available to the thousands of stroke patients every year are limited,” Dr. Ellis says. “The primary drug treatment available must be administered within hours of a stroke and many people don’t have access within that timeframe, because they often can’t seek help for some time after the attack.”
“Ultimately, we want to be able to use a patient’s own stem cells for tailor-made brain therapy that doesn’t have the host rejection issues commonly associated with cell-based therapies. Another advantage is that dental pulp stem cell therapy may provide a treatment option available months or even years after the stroke has occurred,” she says.
Dr. Ellis and her colleagues, Professors Simon Koblar, David O’Carroll and Stan Gronthos, have been working on a laboratory-based model for to test potential treatments in humans. Ellis’ initial observations were part of this research venture, when she discovered that stem cells derived from teeth developed into cells that closely resembled neurons.
“We can do this by providing an environment for the cells that is as close to a normal brain environment as possible, so that instead of becoming cells for teeth they become brain cells,” Dr. Ellis says.
“What we developed wasn’t identical to normal neurons, but the new cells shared very similar properties to neurons. They also formed complex networks and communicated through simple electrical activity, like you might see between cells in the developing brain.”
This work with dental pulp stem cells opens up the potential for modelling many more common brain disorders in the laboratory. Such modeling systems could help in developing new treatments and diagnostic or therapeutic techniques for patients.