Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive death of brain cells and dementia. The loss of memory, coordination, and eventually motor function is relentless and horrific, and causes extensive suffering, financial pressures and loss. Stem cell treatments have been proposed as a treatment for AD, but such treatments have met resistance because of the complex pathology of AD. Introducing new neurons into the brain will do little good if cells are normally dying. However, some work with laboratory animals has suggested that stem cell treatments can benefit animals with conditions that approximately AD (see Kim S, et al., PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45757; Bae JS, et al., Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Jun;10(5):524-31). However there are few studies that examine the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells from fat tissue or “adipose-derived stem cells” on mice with AD, and the effect of these cells on the oxidative injury that tends to accompany AD, and if these stem cells stimulate the generation of new neurons in the brains of AD mice.
Now we have evidence that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells can stimulate for formation of new brain cells in adult rat or mouse models of AD and improve tissue structure and function after a stroke. Dr. Yufang Yan and her team from the School of Life Sciences at Tsinghua University, China transplanted adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into a part of the brain known as the hippocampus of mice that express the APP/PS1 transgene. Such mice show an AD-like disease, with memory loss and amyloid plaques that form in the brain.
Transplantation of ADSCs in these AD model mice decreased oxidative stress and promoted the growth of new neurons and glial cells in the subgranular and subventricular zones of the hippocampus, and, consequently improved the cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice.
These findings were published in Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 8, 2014), and provide theoretical and experimental evidence that ADSCs can be used to treat AD patients.