Tonsil-Based Stem Cells To Repair the Liver

Byeongmoon Jeong and colleagues report in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces that injections of stem cells from tonsils, a body part we don’t need, can repair damaged livers without the need for surgery. The liver rids the body of toxins, makes blood proteins, and metabolizes a goodly number of molecules from our food. Liver failure is a deadly condition and a liver transplant is often the only option to restore the patient to health. Unfortunately there is a need for available organs for transplantation, Also, liver transplantation presents certain risks and also is extremely expensive.

A promising alternative to liver transplantation is the implantation of liver cells. Adult stem cells can be used to make new liver cells, and bone marrow-based stem cells have been used, but they these cells have inherent limitations. Recently, scientists have identified another stem cell source that can be used for this purpose from tonsils. Every year, thousands of tonsillectomies are performed to remove tonsils, and the extirpated tonsils are discarded. Now, however, these throw-away tissues could have a new purpose. Scientists have devised ways to grow tonsil-based stem cells on a three-dimensional scaffold that simulates living liver tissue.

Jeong’s team encapsulated tonsil-derived stem cells in a heat-sensitive liquid that solidifies into a gel at body temperature. To these cells ensconced in this gel, they added protein growth factors to stimulate the stem cells to differentiate into liver cells. The stem cells differentiated into liver cells, degraded the scaffold, and formed functioning liver cells. Jeong and others think that with a little tweaking, this procedure could potentially provide an injectable tissue engineering technique to treat liver disease without surgery.

See Seung-Jin Kim, Min Hee Park, Hyo Jung Moon, Jin Hye Park, Du Young Ko, Byeongmoon Jeong. Polypeptide Thermogels As a 3D Culture Scaffold for Hepatogenic Differentiation of Human Tonsil-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014; 140905122318006 DOI:10.1021/am504652y.