Ulcerative colitis is one of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs) that features chronic inflammation of the large intestine. This is an autoimmune disease that features constant attacks by the immune system on the intestinal mucosae, and the inner layer of the large intestine undergoes constant damage and healing, which increases the risk of the patient to developing colorectal carcinoma.
Mesenchymal stem cells have the capability to suppress inflammation, which makes them promising tools for treating diseases like ulcerative colitis. Unfortunately, the lack of reproducible techniques for harvesting and expanding MSCs has prevented bone marrow- and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs from being routinely used in clinical situations.
However, a study that was published in the journal Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology has used Wharton’s jelly derived umbilical MSCs (UMSCs) to treat mice in which an experimental form of ulcerative colitis was induced. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice has many of the pathological features of ulcerative colitis in humans.
When mice treated with DSS were also given Wharton’s jelly derived UMSCs showed significant diminution of the severity of colitis. The structure of the tissue in the colon looked far more normal and the types of molecules produced by inflammation were significantly reduced. In addition, transplantation of UMSCs reduced the permeability of the intestine and also increased the expression of tight junction proteins, which help knit the colonic cells together and maintain the structural integrity of the colon. These results show that the anti-inflammatory properties of UMSCs and their capacity to regulate tight junction proteins ameliorates ulcerative colitis.