A research team from the University of Iowa has designed a protocol that can create insulin-producing cells that help normalize blood-sugar levels in diabetic mice from skin cells. This discovery represents one of the first steps toward developing patient-specific cell replacement therapy for Type 1 diabetes. This research, which was led by Nicholas Zavazava from the department of internal medicine, was published in the journal PLoS ONE.
Zavazava and his coworker used human skin cells taken from punch biopsies and reprogrammed them to into induced pluripotent stem cells. These induced pluripotent stem cells were then differentiated in culture into pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells.
In culture, Zavazava’s cell made insulin in response to increased concentrations, but when they were implanted into diabetic mice, these cells responded to glucose, secreted insulin and worked to lower the blood-sugar levels in the mice to normal or near-normal levels.
Mind you, these induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells were not as effective as pancreatic cells in controlling blood sugar levels, according to Zavazava in a UI news release. However, Zavazava and his team views the cells’ response in mice as an “encouraging first step” toward the goal of generating effective insulin-producing cells that potentially could be used to not just treat but cure Type 1 diabetes in humans.
“This raises the possibility that we could treat patients with diabetes with their own cells,” Zavazava said. “That would be a major advance, which will accelerate treatment of diabetes.”
Zavazava is also a member of UI’s Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center. This center is one of several groups whose aim is to create an alternative source of insulin-producing cells that can replace the pancreatic beta cells that die off in people with Type 1 diabetes.
According to the UI news release, this study is the first to use human induced pluripotent stem cells instead of embryonic stem cells to generate insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. This protocol has the advantage of creating beta cells from a patient’s own cells include. This would eliminate the need to wait for a donor pancreas, since pancreas transplants are an option for treating Type 1 diabetes, but the demand for transplants is much greater than the availability of organs from deceased donors. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells would also eliminate the need for transplant patients to take immunosuppressive drugs. Finally, the use of induced pluripotent stem cells would also avoid the ethical concerns with treatments based on embryonic stem cells.