A Common Osteoporosis Drug Protects Bone Marrow Stem Cells from DNA Damage

A commonly used treatment for osteoporosis can protect stem cells in bone from the ravages of aging, according to a new study from the University of Sheffield.

Ilaria Bellantuono and her colleagues have discovered that zoledronate can extend the lifespan of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by reducing the degree of DNA damage experienced by these stem cells.

As stem cells age, they accumulate DNA damage, and this seems to be one of the most important mechanisms of aging. DNA damage can cause stem cells to lose their capacity to maintain tissues and repair them when those tissues are damaged. This new research from Bellantuono’s laboratory shows that zoledronate can protect mesenchymal stem cells from DNA damage, which enhances their survival and maintains their function.

According the Professor Bellantuono, “The drug enhances the repair of the damage in DNA occurring with age in stem cells in the bone. It is also likely to work in other stem cells too.”

She continued: “This drug has been shown to delay mortality in patients affected by osteoporosis but until now we didn’t know why. These findings provide an explanation as to why it may help people to live longer.

“Now we want to understand whether the drug can be used to delay or revert the aging in stem cells in older people and improve the maintenance of tissues such as the heart, the muscle and immune cells, keeping them healthier for longer.

“We want to understand whether it improves the ability of stem cells to repair those tissues after injury, such as when older patients with cancer undergo radiotherapy.”

Almost half of elderly patients over 75 years of age have three or more diseases at the same time, such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, infections, and muscle weakness. However, work like this suggests that drugs like zoledronate could be used to treat, prevent or perhaps even delay the onset of such diseases.

Dr Bellantuono added: “We are hopeful that this research will pave the way for a better cure for cancer patients and keeping older people healthier for longer by reducing the risk of developing multiple age-related diseases.”