Celyad has pioneered a stem cell treatment for the heart called C-Cure. C-Cure consists of bone marrow stem cells that are isolated from a bone marrow aspiration that are then treated with a proprietary concoction that drives the cells to become cardiac progenitor cells, After this treatment, the cells are administered to the patient by means of a catheter where they will hopefully regenerate dead heart muscle tissue, make new blood vessels to replace clogged and dead blood vessels, and also smooth muscle cells to regulate the diameter of the newly-formed blood vessels.
The first clinical trial for C-Cure was announced in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in June 2013. At this time, Celyad reported in their published data that all the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) had been successfully primed with their cocktails and successfully delivered to each patient. The desired cell dose was achieved in 75% of patients in cell delivery without complications occurred in 100% of cases. Fortunately, there were incidents of increased cardiac or systemic toxicity induced by the therapy.
Patients also showed some improvements. For example, left ventricular ejection fraction was improved by cell therapy (from 27.5 ± 1.0% to 34.5 ± 1.1%) versus standard of care alone (from 27.8 ± 2.0% to 28.0 ± 1.8%, p = 0.0001) and was associated with a reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (−24.8 ± 3.0 ml vs. −8.8 ± 3.9 ml, p = 0.001). Patients was received MSC therapy also improved their 6-min walk distance (+62 ± 18 m vs. −15 ± 20 m, p = 0.01) and had a superior composite clinical score encompassing cardiac parameters in tandem with New York Heart Association functional class, quality of life, physical performance, hospitalization, and event-free survival. The initial trial examined 13 control patients who received standard care and 20 patients who received their own MSCs and followed them for 2 years.
The strategy surrounding C-Cure is based on preclinical experiments in laboratory mice in which animals that had suffered heart attacks were treated with human MSCs that had been isolated from volunteers and pretreated with a cocktail that consisted of transforming growth factor-beta1, bone morphogenetic protein-4, activin A, retinoic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factor-2, alpha-thrombin, and interleukin-6. This cocktail apparently drove the cells to form a heart-like fate. Then the cocktail-treated MSCs were implanted into the hearts of the mice and in the words of the paper’s abstract, the cells “achieved superior functional and structural benefit without adverse side effects. Engraftment into murine hearts was associated with increased human-specific nuclear, sarcomeric, and gap junction content along with induction of myocardial cell cycle activity.”. must say that I did not see definitive proof in this paper that the implanted cells actually formed new myocardium as opposed to inducing native cardiac stem cell population to form new myocardial cells.
This present trial is a Phase 3 clinical trial and it examined changes in patient mortality, morbidity, quality of life, six-minute walk test, and left ventricular structure and function at nine months after the treatment was given, The trial recruited 271 evaluable patients with chronic advanced symptomatic heart failure in 12 different countries in Europe and Israel. Like the trial before it, it was double blinded, placebo controlled.
First the good news: the procedure was well tolerated with no safety concerns.
The bad news was that a statistically-significant difference between the control group and treatment group was not observed 39 weeks after treatment. There is a silver lining to all this though: a positive trend was seen across all treatment groups. More interestingly, the primary endpoint was met (p=0.015) for a subset of the patients treated with their own MSCs. This subset represents 60% of the population of the CHART-1 study (baseline End Diastolic Volume (EDV) segmentation), which is pretty significant subset of the subject group. These patients showed less mortality and worsening of heart failure, better quality of life, an improved 6-minute walk test, end systolic volume and an improved ejection fraction.
On the strength of these data, Celyad thinks that this 60^ might represent the patient population for whom C-Cure is a viable treatment. What remains is to determine exactly who those patients are, the nature of their disease, and how much patients might be identified.
Dr. Christian Homsy, CEO of Celyad, commented: “For the first time in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase III cell therapy study, a positive effect, consistent across all parameters tested, was observed for a substantial, clearly definable, group of heart failure patients.
CHART-1 has allowed us to better define the patient population that would benefit from C-Cure®. We are excited by the prospects for C-Cure® as a new potential treatment option for a highly relevant heart failure population. We are confident that the results will generate interest from potential partners that could accelerate the development and commercialization of C-Cure®.”
Prof. Jozef Bartunek, CHART-1 principal co-investigator, said: “This pioneering study has contributed greatly to our understanding of heart failure disease and the place of regenerative medicine in its management. The results seen for a large clinically relevant number of the patients are ground breaking. We look forward to completing the full analysis and making the data available to the medical community at ESC.
On behalf of the CHART 1 steering committee we wish to thank the patients and families who were enrolled in the study as well as all the physicians and medical teams that made this study possible.”
Prof. Gerasimos Filippatos, Immediate Past-President of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, member of the CHART-1 dissemination committee, said, “The CHART-1 results have identified a well-defined group of patients with symptomatic heart failure despite optimal therapy. Those patients are a large subset of the heart failure population and present specific therapeutic challenges. The outcome of CHART-1 indicate those patients could benefit from this therapy”.
The Company will use their CHART-1 results as the foundation of their CHART-2 US trial, which will test the target patient group with C-CURE. Celyad is also in the process of seeking partnerships to accelerate further development and commercialization of C-Cure®.
Do C-CURE cells make new heart muscle cells? Count me skeptical., Just because cells form something that looks like cardiac cells in culture is no indication that they form tried and true heart muscle cells. This is especially true, since bone marrow-based cells lack the calcium handling machinery of heart muscle cells and until someone definitely shows that bone marrow cells can be transdiferentiated into cells that possess the calcium handling proteins of heart muscle cells, I will remain skeptical,
Having said that, this is a very interesting clinical trial despite the fact that it failed to meet its primary endpoints. Further work might even make more of it. Here’s to hoping.