Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Based Model System of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Provides Unique Insights into Disease Pathology


A research team at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai led by Bruce Gelb created a model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by using human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Patients who suffer from an extreme thickening of the walls of the heart exhibit HCM. This excessive heart thickening is associated with a several rare and common illnesses. There is a strong genetic component to the risk for developing HCM. Can stem cell-based model system be used to study the genetics of HCM?

The answer to this question seems to be yes, since laboratory-generated induced pluripotent stem cells lines that have been differentiated into heart cells that, in many cases, closely resemble human heart tissue. Studies with such stem cell-based model systems have reaped useful insights into disease mechanisms (see F Kamdar, et al., J Card Fail. 2015 Sep;21(9):761-70; Lee YK, Ng KM, Tse HF. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014 Oct;10(10):2562-85).

In this paper, Bruce Gelb and his colleagues examined a genetic disorder called cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC). CFC is caused by mutations in a gene called BRAF. It is a rare condition that affects fewer than 300 people worldwide, and causes head, face, skin, and muscular abnormalities, including abnormalities of the heart.

Gelb and his coworkers isolated skin cells from three CFC patients and reprogrammed them into induced pluripotent stem cells, which were then differentiated into heart cells. In this disease model system, the heart muscle cells enlarged, but this seemed to be due to the interaction of the heart muscle cells with heart-specific fibroblasts. Fibroblasts constitute a significant portion of total heart tissue, even though the heart muscle cells are responsible for the actual pumping activity of the heart. In their model system, Gelb and others observed that these fibroblast-like cells produce an excess of a protein growth factor called TGF-beta, which causes the cardiomyocytes to undergo hypertrophy or abnormal enlargement.

This model system has relevance for research on several related and more common genetic disorders, including Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by unusual facial features, short stature, heart defects, and skeletal malformations.

There is no cure for HCM in patients with these related genetic conditions, but if these findings are correct, then scientists might be able to treat HCM by blocking specific cell signals. This is something that scientists already know how to do. Approximately 40 percent of patients with CFC suffer from HCM (two of the three participants in this study had HCM). This suggests a pathogenic connection, though the link has never been adequately researched.

“We believe this is the first time the phenomenon has been observed using a human induced pluripotent stem cell model of the disease,” said Bruce Gelb.

Please see Rebecca Josowitz et al., “Autonomous and Non-Autonomous Defects Underlie Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in BRAF-Mutant hiPSC -Derived Cardiomyocytes,” Stem Cell Reports, 2016; DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2016.07.018.

Advertisements

Published by

mburatov

Professor of Biochemistry at Spring Arbor University (SAU) in Spring Arbor, MI. Have been at SAU since 1999. Author of The Stem Cell Epistles. Before that I was a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA (1997-1999), and Sussex University, Falmer, UK (1994-1997). I studied Cell and Developmental Biology at UC Irvine (PhD 1994), and Microbiology at UC Davis (MA 1986, BS 1984).