One of the challenges of stem cell-based therapies is cell survival. Once stem cells are implanted into a foreign site, many of them tend to pack up and die before they can do any good. For this reason, many scientists have examined strategies to improve stem cell survival.
A new technique that improves stem cells survival have been discovered by Yubo Fan and his colleagues at Beihang University School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering. This non-chemical technique, biphasic electrical stimulation (BES) might become important for spinal cord injury patients in the near future.
Spinal cord injury affects approximately 250,000 Americans, with 52% being paraplegic and 47% quadriplegic. There are 11,000 new spinal cord injuries each year and 82% are male.
Stem cell transplantions into the spinal cord to regenerate severed neurons and associated cells provides a potentially powerful treatment. However, once stem cells are implanted into the injured spinal cord, many of them die. Cell death is probably a consequence of several factors such as a local immune response, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), and probably most importantly, limited quantities of growth factors.
Fan said of his work, “We’ve shown for the very first time that BES may provide insight into preventing growth factor deprivation-triggered apoptosis in olfactory bulb precursor cells. These findings suggest that BES may thus be used as a strategy to improve cell survival and prevent cell apoptosis (programmed cell death) in stem cell-based transplantation therapies.”
Since electrical stimulation dramatically accelerates the speed of axonal regeneration and target innervation and positively modulates the functional recovery of injured nerves, Fan decided to test BES. His results showed that BES upregulated all the sorts of responses in stem cells that you would normally see with growth factors. Thus BES can increase stem cell survival without exogenous chemicals or genetic engineering.
Fan and his team examined the effects of BES on olfactory bulb neural precursor cells and they found that 12 hours of BES exposure protected cells from dying after growth factor deprivation. How did BES do this? Fan and other showed that BES stimulated a growth factor pathway called the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. BES also increase the output of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
“What was especially surprising and exciting,” said Fan, “was that a non-chemical procedure can prevent apoptosis in stem cell therapy for spinal cord patients.” Fan continued: “How BES precisely regulates the survival of exogenous stem cells is still unknown but will be an extremely novel area of research on spinal cord injury in the future.”
BES can improve the survival of neural precursor cells and will provide the survival of neural precursor cells and will provide the basis or future studies that could lead to novel therapies for patients with spinal cord injury.