BRCA1 is a gene that plays a huge role in breast cancer. Particular mutations in BRCA1 predispose women increased risks of breast cancer cervical, uterine, pancreatic, and colon cancer and men to increased risks of pancreatic cancer, testicular cancer, and early-onset prostate cancer.
BRCA1 encodes a protein that helps repair damage to chromosomes. When this protein product does not function properly, cells cannot properly repair acquired chromosomal damage, and they die or become transformed into cancer cells.
What does this have to do with stem cells? A study led by Cédric Blanpain from the Université libre de Bruxelles showed that BRCA1 is critical for the maintenance of hair follicle stem cells.
Peggy Sotiropoulou and her colleagues in Blanpain’s laboratory showed that when BRCA1 is deleted, hair follicle cells how very high levels of DNA damage and cell death. This accumulated DNA damaged drives the follicle stem cells to divide furiously until they burn themselves out. This is in contrast to the other stem cell populations in the skin, particularly those in the sebaceous glands and epidermis, which are maintained and seem unaffected by deletion of BRCA1.
Sotiropoulou said of these results: “We were very surprised to see that distinct types of cells residing within the same tissue may exhibit such profoundly different responses to the deletion of the same crucial gene for DNA repair.”
This work provides some of the first clues about how DNA repair mechanisms in different types of adult stem cells are employed at different stages of stem cells activation. Blanpain and his group is determining if other stem cells in the body are also affected by the loss of BRCA1. These results might elucidate why mutations in BRCA1 causes cancer in the breast and ovaries, but not in other tissues.