Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Preserve Heart Function After a Heart Attack in Mice


A consortium of Portuguese scientists have conducted an extensive examination of the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord on the heart of mice that have suffered a massive heart attack. Even more remarkable is that these workers used a proprietary technique to harvest, process, and prepare the umbilical cord stem cells in the hopes that this technique would give rise to a commercial product that will be tested in human clinical trials,

Human umbilical cord tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) were obtained by means of a proprietary technology that was developed by a biomedical company called ECBio. Their product,, UCX®, consists of clean, high-quality, umbilical cord stem cells that are collected under Good Manufacturing Practices. The use of Good Manufacturing Practice means that UCX is potentially a clinical-grade product. Thus, this paper represents a preclinical evaluation of UCX.

This experiments in this paper used standard methods to give mice heart attacks that were later received injections of UCX into their heart muscle. The same UCX cells were used in experiments with cultured cells to determine their effects under more controlled conditions.

The mice that received the UCX injections into their heart muscles after suffering from a large heart attack showed preservation of heart function. Also, measurements of the numbers of dead cells in the heart muscle of heart-sick mice that did and did not receive injections of umbilical cord cells into their hearts showed that the umbilical cord stem cells preserved heart muscle cells and prevented them from dying. Additionally, the implanted umbilical cord MSCs induced the growth and formation of many small blood vessels in the infarcted area of the heart. This prevented the heart from undergoing remodeling (enlargement), and preserved heart structure and function.

When subjected to a battery of tests on cultured cells, UCX activated cardiac stem cells, which are the resident stem cell population in the heart. Implanted UCX cells activated the proliferation of cardiac stem cells and their differentiation into heart muscle cells. There was no evidence that umbilical cord MSCs differentiated into heart muscle cells and engrafted into the heart. Rather UCX seems to help the heart by means of paracrine mechanisms, which simply means that they secrete healing molecules in the heart and help the heart heal itself.

In conclusion, Diana Santos Nascimento, the lead author of this work, and her colleagues state that, “the method of UCX® extraction and subsequent processing has been recently adapted to advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) standards, as defined by the guideline on the minimum quality data for certification of ATMP. Given that our work constitutes a proof-of-principle for the cardioprotective effects UCX® exert in the context of MI, a future clinical usage of this off-the-shelf cellular product can be envisaged.”

Preclinical trials with larger animals should come next, and after that, hopefully, the first human clinical trials will begin.

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Outperform Bone Marrow Stem Cell in Heart Repair


A study from the laboratory of Armand Keating at the University of Toronto and Princess Margaret Hospital has compared the ability of umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow stem cells to repair the hearts of laboratory animals after a heart attack. The umbilical cord stem cells showed a clear superiority to bone marrow stem cells when it came to repairing heart muscle.

Keating used human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) for his experiment, and these cells are widely regarded as a form of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell that surround the umbilical cord blood vessels.

Transplantation of cells from either bone marrow or umbilical cord into the heart soon after a heart attack improved the function and structure of the heart. However, functional measurements showed that the HUCPVCs were twice as effective as bone marrow stem cells at repairing the heart muscle.

Keating added: “We are hoping that this translates into fewer people developing complications of heart failure because their muscle function after a heart attack is better.”

In addition to further pre-clinical tests, Keating and his research team hope to initiate clinical trials with human patients within 12-18 months. Keating is also interested in testing the ability of umbilical cord stem cells to heal the hearts of those cancer patients who have experienced heart damage as a result of chemotherapy. In such patients, chemotherapy rids their bodies of cancer, but the cure is worse than the cancer, since the drugs also leave the patients with a severely damaged heart. Such stem cell transplantations could potentially strengthen the hearts of these patients, and give them a new lease on life. My own mother died from congestive heart failure as a result of an experimental arsenic treatment that killed her heart muscle. My mother suffered from chronic myelogenous disease and the arsenic was meant to kill off all the rogue cells in her bone marrow, but instead it killed her heart. If such a stem treatment were available then, my mother might still be with me.

There are over 250 clinical trials with mesenchymal stem cells to date to treat conditions ranging from Crohn’s disease to neurological conditions.  Also, a recent meta-analysis has established the safety of mesenchymal stem cell treatments for several different conditions (see Lalu MM, McIntyre L, Pugliese C, Fergusson D, Winston BW, et al. (2012) Safety of Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (SafeCell): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47559. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047559).