Musashi-2 Protein Increases Number Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Umbilical Cord Blood


Umbilical cord blood infusions save the lives of many children and adults each year. Umbilical cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that can replace those lost to anticancer treatments, chemicals, or bone marrow collapse. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, the clinical use of umbilical cord blood is limited by the fact that HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers.

Small molecules that enhance hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified (see Boitano, A. E. et al. Science 329, 1345–1348 (2010), and Fares, I. et al. Science 345, 1509–1512 (2014). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood.

Now a research team from McMaster University’s Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute have discovered a key protein in the HSC/HSPC regenerative signaling pathway.

Kristin J. Hope and her team have elucidated the role of a protein called Musashi-2 in the function and development of HSCs.

Dr. Hope says that this discovery could help the tens of thousands of patients who suffer from blood-based disorders, including leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, sickle-cell disease, and more.

“We’ve really shone a light on the way these stem cells work,” she said. “We now understand how they operate at a completely new level, and that provides us with a serious advantage in determining how to maximize these stem cells in therapeutics. With this newfound ability to control over the regeneration of these cells, more people will be able to get the treatment they need.”

Only about five percent of all umbilical cord blood samples contain enough HSCs for a transplant, which is unfortunate because umbilical cord blood is less likely to be rejected by the immune system, because of the immaturity of the cells, and is also rather abundant.

Growing HSCs in culture is a possibility, but this remains a somewhat poorly understood and ill-defined procedure.

Musashi-2 is an RNA-binding protein in cells and was actually named for the Japanese samurai who fought using two swords.

In collaboration with researchers in Dr. Gene Yeo’s lab at the University of California San Diego, Dr. Hope’s lab has found that the Musashi-2 protein plays a pivotal role in controlling stem cell production in human cord blood HSCs. When Musashi-2 levels in HSCs are the knocked down, the cod blood HSCs were no longer able to regenerate the blood system. Conversely, when the levels of Musashi-2 were increased, the number of HSCs in the cord blood sample increased significantly.

The Hope’s group new discovery has identified a new way to tightly control on the development of HSCs. Essentially, Hope and her colleagues have discovered a new way to make more cord blood stem cells in a dish.

In the past, attempts to control HSC function and development has been approached at the level of transcriptional factors. The Hope lab’s approach of directing stem cell function through manipulation of an RNA-binding protein is somewhat novel, and represents a paradigm shift in the way we think about stem cell biology.

“This discovery really highlights the underappreciated role that RNA-binding protein-mediated control has on the properties of stemness in the blood system,” explained Dr. Hope.

This paradigm shift provides new targets for pharmaceuticals that may be able to expand these cells in a safe and targeted manner.

These findings represent an important step forward in surmounting the obstacles associated with stem cell transplants. According to Dr. Hope, the ability to increase the number of available cord blood stem cells has the potential to “mitigate a lot of the problems that arise post-transplantation.” Elaborating further, Dr. Hope explained that stem cells from cord blood are a “safer and more efficient transplant product,” and detailed how their use could reduce the number of patient follow-up visits and treatments required post-transplantation. Streamlining the transplantation process could help to alleviate the stress on the healthcare system and open up space for more transplant patients.

Stem Cells that Control Skin and Hair Color


A research team at NYU Langone Medical Center has uncovered a pair of molecular signals that control the hair and skin color in mice and humans. Manipulation of these very signals may lead to therapies or even drugs to treat skin pigment disorders, such as vitiligo.

Vitiligo
Vitiligo

Vitiligo is somewhat disfiguring condition characterized by the loss of skin pigmentation, leaving a blotchy, white appearance. Finding ways to activate these two signaling pathways may provide clinicians with the means to mobilize the pigment-synthesizing stem cells that place pigment in skin structures and, potentially, repigment the pigment-bearing structures that were damaged in cases of vitiligo. Such treatment might also repigment grayed hair cells in older people, and even correct the discoloration that affects scars.

Workers in the laboratory of Mayumi Ito at the Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology and the Department of Cell Biology showed that a skin-based stem cell population of pigment-producing cells, known as “melanocytes,” grow and regenerate in response to two molecular signals. The Endothelin receptor type B (EdnrB) protein is found on the surfaces of melanocytes. EdnrB signaling promotes the growth and differentiation of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs). Activation of EdnrB greatly enhances the regeneration of hair-based and epidermal-based melanocytes. However, EdnrB does act alone. Instead, the effect of EdnrB depends upon active Wnt signaling. This Wnt signal is initiated by the secretion of Wnt glycoproteins by the hair follicle cells.

This work was published in Cell Reports, April 2016 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2016.04.006.

Previous work on EdnrB has established that it plays a central role in blood vessel development. This work by Ito and his team is the first indication that pigment-producing melanocytes, which provide color to hair and skin, are controlled by this protein.

A lack of EdnrB signaling in mice caused premature graying of the hair. However, stimulating the EdnrB pathway resulted in a 15-fold increase in melanocyte stem cell pigment production, and by two months, the mice showed hyperpigmentation. In fact, wounded skin in these mice became pigmented upon healing.

Overexpression of Edn1 Promotes Upward Migration of McSCs and Generation of Epidermal Melanocytes following Wounding (A–D) Whole-mount image of X - gal - stained wound area of Dct-LacZ (control; A and B) and Tyr-CreER ; EdnrB fl/fl ; Dct-lacZ (C and D) at indicated days after re-epithelialization. (E–J) Double immunohistochemical staining of Dct and Ki67 in the bulge (E and H), upper hair follicle (F and I), and inter-follicular epidermis (G and J ) in control (E–G) and K14-rtTA ; TetO-Edn1-LacZ (Edn1; H–J) mice. (K–N) Whole - mount analyses of wound site (K and L) and de novo hair follicles (M and N) within wound site from control (K and M) and Edn1 mice (L and N) at 8 days after re-epithelialization. (O–R) Quantification of the number of Dct - LacZ+ cells in wound site (O), the percentage of Ki67+/Dct+ cells (P), the number of pigmented cells in wound site (Q), and the percentage of pigmented de novo hair (R), respectively. Dashed lines indicate periphery of wound site in (A) and (D) and boundary between epidermis and dermis in (E)–(J). Arrowheads show Dct - LacZ + cells in wound area in (A)–(D) and Ki67+/Dct+ cells (H)–(J). IFE, inter-follicular epidermis; UF, upper follicle. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. *p < 0.01; **p < 0.02; ***p < 0.05. The scale bar represents 1 mm in (A), 50 m m in (E), 200 m m in (K) and (L), and 100 m m in (M) and (N).
Overexpression of Edn1 Promotes Upward Migration of McSCs and Generation of Epidermal Melanocytes following Wounding (A–D) Whole-mount image of X-gal – stained wound area of
Dct-LacZ (control; A and B) and Tyr-CreER; EdnrB fl/fl; Dct-lacZ (C and D) at indicated days after
re-epithelialization. (E–J) Double immunohistochemical staining of Dct and Ki67 in the bulge (E and H), upper hair follicle (F and I), and inter-follicular epidermis (G and J) in control (E–G) and K14-rtTA;
TetO-Edn1-LacZ (Edn1; H–J) mice.  (K–N) Whole-mount analyses of wound site (K and L) and de novo hair follicles (M and N) within wound site from control (K and M) and Edn1 mice (L and N) at
8 days after re-epithelialization.  (O–R) Quantification of the number of Dct-LacZ+ cells in wound site (O), the percentage of Ki67+/Dct+ cells (P), the number of pigmented cells in wound site (Q),
and the percentage of pigmented de novo hair (R), respectively.  Dashed lines indicate periphery of wound site in (A) and (D) and boundary between epidermis and dermis in (E)–(J). Arrowheads show Dct-LacZ+ cells in wound area in (A)–(D) and Ki67+/Dct+ cells (H)–(J). IFE, inter-follicular epidermis; UF, upper follicle. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. *p < 0.01; **p < 0.02; ***p < 0.05.
The scale bar represents 1 mm in (A), 50 micrometer in (E), 200 micrometer in (K) and (L), and 100
micrometer in (M) and (N).

If the Wnt signaling pathway was blocked, stem cell growth and maturation sputtered and stalled and never got going, even when the EdnrB pathway was working properly. These mice had unpigmented fur (see E in figure below).

Loss of beta-catenin Function Suppresses Edn1-Mediated Effects on McSC Proliferation, Differentiation, and Upward Migration (A) Experimental scheme for treatment of Tyr-CreER ; b -catenin fl/fl ; K14-rtTA ; TetO-Edn1-LacZ ( b -cat cKO; Edn1 ) mice and control K14-rtTA ; TetO-Edn1- LacZ ( Edn1 ) mice. (B–E) Gross appearance of Edn1 (B and D) and b -cat cKO; Edn1 mice (C and E) at second (B and C) and third telogen (D and E). (F–K) Immunohistochemistry for indicated markers (F, G, I, and J) and bright- field image (H and K) of bulge/sHG region in skin sections from Edn1 mice (F–H) and b -cat cKO; Edn1 mice (I–K) at anagen II. (L–Q) Bright-field image (L–N) and Dct immunostaining of whole-mount wound site (O–Q) from Tyr-CreER ; b -catenin fl/fl ( b -cat cKO; L and O), Edn1 (M and P), and b -cat cKO; Edn1 mice (N and Q). (R and S) Quantification of the percentage of Dct+ cells positive for Ki67, Tyr, and pigmentation (R) and the number of Dct+ cells in wounded site (S). Dashed lines indicate border between hair follicle and dermis. Arrow- heads indicate double positive cells for indicated markers (F and G) and pigmented cells (H). Data are presented as the mean ± SD.*p<0.05;**p< 0.02; ***p < 0.001. The scale bar represents 1 cm in (B)–(E), 10 m min(F), and 200 m min(L). 1
Loss of beta-catenin Function Suppresses Edn1-Mediated Effects on McSC Proliferation, Differentiation, and Upward Migration
(A) Experimental scheme for treatment of
Tyr-CreER; beta-catenin fl/fl; K14-rtTA; TetO-Edn1-LacZ (beta-cat cKO; Edn1) mice and control K14-rtTA; TetO-Edn1-LacZ (Edn1) mice.
(B–E) Gross appearance of Edn1 (B and D) and
beta-cat cKO; Edn1 mice (C and E) at second (B and C) and third telogen (D and E). (F–K) Immunohistochemistry for indicated markers (F, G, I, and J) and bright-field image (H and K) of bulge/sHG region in skin sections from Edn1 mice (F–H) and beta-cat cKO; Edn1
mice (I–K) at anagen II. (L–Q) Bright-field image (L–N) and Dct immunostaining of whole-mount wound site (O–Q) from
Tyr-CreER; beta-catenin fl/fl (beta-cat cKO; L and O), Edn1 (M and P), and beta-cat cKO; Edn1 mice (N and Q). (R and S) Quantification of the percentage of Dct+ cells positive for Ki67, Tyr, and pigmentation (R) and the number of Dct+ cells in wounded site (S).
Dashed lines indicate border between hair follicle and dermis. Arrow-heads indicate double positive cells for indicated markers (F and G) and pigmented cells (H). Data are presented as the mean ± SD.*p<0.05;**p<
0.02; ***p < 0.001. The scale bar represents 1 cm in (B)–(E), 10 micrometers in (F), and 200 micrometer  in (L).

However, perhaps the most exciting finding for Ito and his colleagues was that Wnt-dependent, EdnrB signaling rescued the defects in melanocyte regeneration caused by loss of the Mc1R receptor. This is precisely the receptor that does not function properly in red-heads, which causes them to have red hair and very light skin that burns easily in the sun. These data suggest that Edn/EdnrB/Wnt signaling in McSCs can be used therapeutically to promote photoprotective-melanocyte regeneration in those patients with increased risk of skin cancers due to their very lightly colored skin.

Melanocyte Stem Cell Modeld

Plant Polyphenol May Help Improve Wound Healing By Activating Mesenchymal Stem Cells


Akito Maeda and his coworkers from Osaka University in Osaka, Japan have discovered that a plant-based polyphenol promotes the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in blood circulation. This same plant polyphenol also causes MSCs to accumulate in damaged tissues and improve wound healing.

This compound, cinnamtannin B-1, might be a candidate drug for stem cell treatments for cutaneous disorders associated with particular diseases and lesions.

Cinnamtannin B-1
Cinnamtannin B-1

Cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid, seems to activate membrane-bound enzymes; specifically the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase enzyme, which is an integral enzyme in the phosphoinositol signal transduction pathway, which culminates in the mobilization of intracellular calcium stores and profoundly alters cell behavior and function.

Phosphoinositol pathway signaling

Flow cytometry analysis of mouse blood established that administration of cinnamtannin B-1 increased the release of MSCs from bone marrow. Laboratory experiments with cultured MSCs showed that cinnamtannin B-1 treatment activated MSC migration and recruitment to wounds. This seems to suggest that the enhanced healing caused by cinnamtannin B-1 treatment is due to enhanced MSC migration and homing to damaged tissues.

Imaging analysis of whole animals that had MSCs that expressed the firefly luciferase enzyme showed that cinnamtannin B-1 treatment increased the homing of MSCs to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model.

When Maeda and his colleagues treated MSCs with small molecules that inhibited phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, those cells no longer responded to cinnamtannin B-1, which confirms the role of the phosphoinositol signal transduction pathway in cinnamtannin B-1 activation of MSCs.

Thus, cinnamtannin B-1 promotes MSC migration in culture and accelerates wound healing in mice. In addition, cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of MSCs seems to be mediated by specific signaling pathways.

SanBio, Inc Moves Forward With Clinical Stem Cell Trial for Traumatic Brain Injury in Japan


Traumatic brain injuries can result from a variety of causes, ranging from car accidents, falls, occupational hazards, and sports injuries. The cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) differs from that of ischemic stroke, but many of the clinical manifestations are somewhat similar (motor deficits). Such injuries can cause lifelong motor deficits, and there are currently no approved medicines for the treatment of persistent disability from traumatic brain injury.

SanBio, Inc., has completed the regulatory requirements to conduct a clinical trial using their proprietary SB623 regenerative cell therapy to treat patients who suffer from TBI. The obligatory 30-day review period of clinical trial notification by the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) was completed on March 7, 2016. No safety concerns were voiced, and the trial can proceed.

SanBio’s clinical trial is entitled “Stem cell therapy for traumatic brain injury” or STEMTRA, and it will study the safety and efficacy of SB623 cell therapy in treating patients who suffer from chronic motor impairments following a TBI.

Enrollment in this clinical trial started in the United States in October, 2015. The trial will include clinical sites and patients in Japan and will enroll ~52 patients. The enrollment of Japanese patients is expected to accelerate the overall enrollment of human subjects.

SanBio spokesperson, Damien Bates, the Chief Medical Officer and Head of Medical Research at SanBio, said: “SanBio’s regenerative cell medicine, SB623, has improved outcomes in patients with persistent motor deficits due to ischemic stroke, and our preclinical data suggest that it may also help TBI patients.  This is the first global Phase 2 clinical trial for TBI allogeneic stem cells, and the approval to conduct the trial in Japan, as well as in the United States, brings us one step closer to determining SB623’s efficacy for treatment whose who suffer from the effects of traumatic brain injury.”

SB623 are modified mesenchymal stem cells that transiently express a modified human Notch1 gene that only contains the intracellular domain of the Notch1 protein. This activated gene drives mesenchymal stem cells to form a cell type that habitually supports neural cells and promotes their health, survival, and healing.  When administered into damaged neural tissue, SB623 reverses neural damage. Since SB623 cells are allogeneic (from a donor), a single donor’s cells can be used to treat many patients. In cell culture and animal models, SB623 cells restore function to damaged neurons associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury, retinal diseases, and Parkinson’s disease. SB623 cells function by promoting the body’s natural regenerative process.

SanBio recently completed a US-based Phase 1/2a clinical trial for SB623 in patients with chronic motor impairments six months to five years following an ischemic stroke. The results of this trial demonstrated that SB623 can improve motor function following a stroke. On the strength of these results, SanBio initiated a Phase 2b randomized, double-blind, clinical trial of 156 subjects began enrollment in December 2015.  This trial is entitled ACTIsSIMA (“Allogeneic Cell Therapy for Ischemic Stroke to Improve Motor Abilities”).

Since the therapeutic mechanism of action of SB623 cells and the proposed route of administration are similar in the two trials (the stroke and TBI trials), the results of the TBI trial should be similar to those of the stroke trial.

The Japanese regulatory agencies grant marketing approval for regenerative medicines earlier countries as a result of an amendment to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in 2014. This particular amendment defined regenerative medicine products as a new category in addition to conventional drugs and medical devices, and the conditional and term-limited accelerated approval system for regenerative medicine products has started.

Two regenerative medicine products have already gained marketing approval under this new system, and the government-led industrialization of regenerative medicine products has gradually been realized.

SanBio has begun the preparation of clinical trial facilities in Japan and expects the launch of the clinical trial in 2016. the company hopes to market the medicine in Japan by taking advantage of the accelerated approval system.

How Skeletal Stem Cells form the Blueprint of the Face


A new study from the laboratory of University of Southern California (USC) Stem Cell researcher J Gage Crump, who is at the Eli and Edythe Broad CIRM Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, has identified the key molecular signals that control the critical timing of the development of the vertebrate face.

Previous work has demonstrated that two molecular signals, in particular the JaggedNotch and Endothelin 1 signaling, are integral for shaping the face. Loss of either of these signals results in facial deformities in zebrafish and humans. This illustrates the essential contribution these signaling pathways make to the development of the face.

Lindsey Barske, a researcher in Crump’s laboratory and her colleagues utilized sophisticated genetic, genomic, and imaging tools to study face formation in zebrafish and showed that the Jagged-Notch and Endothelin 1 pathways work in tandem to control when and where the facial stem cells form face-specific cartilage.

In the lower part of the face, the Endothelin 1 signal accelerates cartilage formation early in development, but in the upper face, the Jagged-Notch signal transduction pathway produces signals that prevent stem cells from making cartilage until later in development.

Barske and her colleagues discovered that these timing differences in facial stem cell activity and facial cartilage production play a major role in making the upper and lower cartilage regions of the face.

The earliest blueprint of the facial skeleton is established by intersecting signals that control when stem cells transform cartilage into bone. It also appears that small tweaks to the timing of these events accounts for the different skull shapes observed in vertebrate animals. Also, small, nuanced changes in facial cartilage production and ossification can also account for the diverse array of facial shapes observed in humans.

This work was published in PLOS Genetics 12(4): e1005967. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005967.

Skin Cell to Eye Transplantation Successful


A presentation at the annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology in Seattle, Washington has reported the safe transplantation of stem cells derived from a patient’s skin to the back of the eye in an effort to restore vision. The subject for this research project suffered from advanced wet age-related macular degeneration that did not respond to current standard treatments.

A small skin biopsy from the patient’s arm was collected and reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The iPSCs were then differentiated into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells, which were transplanted into the patient’s eye. The transplanted cells survived without any adverse events for over a year and resulted in slightly, though significantly, improved vision.

iPSCs are adult cells that have been reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state, which can then be differentiated into any cell type found in the body.

Abstract Title: #3769: Transplantation of Autologous induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Sheets for Exudative Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Clinical Study by Yasuo Kurimoto and others from the laboratory of Masayo Takahashi’s laboratory at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan.

Unfortunately, this clinical trial has been suspended because iPSCs made from other patients proved to possess too many genetic abnormalities.  Therefore, Takahashi and her colleagues have decided that allogeneic iPSCs differentiated into RPEs will probably do a better job than the patient’s own skin cell-derived iPSCs.

Positive Results from Phase 2 Study in Spinal Cord Injury


Stem Cells, Inc., has released the six-month results from cohort I of an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial of human neural stem cells for the treatment of chronic cervical spinal cord injuries. The data displayed significant improvements in muscle strength had occurred in five of the six patients treated. Of these five patients, four of them also showed improved performance on functional tasks that assesses dexterity and fine motor skills. Furthermore, these four patients improved in the level of spinal cord injury according to the classification system provided by the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury or ISNCSCI.

Stem Cells, Inc., expects to release their detailed final 12-month results on this first open-cohort later this quarter.

Chief medical officer, Stephen Huhn, presented these data at the American Spinal Injury Association annual meeting in Philadelphia, on Friday, April 15.  Dr. Huhn also believes that the interim results are very encouraging and reason to be quite hopeful.

“The emerging data continue to be very encouraging,” said Dr. Huhn. “We believe that these types of motor changes will improve the independence and quality of life of patients and are the first demonstration that a cellular therapy has the ability to impact recovery in chronic spinal cord injury. We currently have thirteen sites in the United States and Canada that are actively recruiting patients. We have enrolled and randomized 19 of the 40 total patients in the statistically powered, single-blind, randomized controlled, Cohort II. We are projecting to complete enrollment by the end of September so that we can have final results in 2017.”

The present Phase 2 clinical trial is a multi-center enterprise that includes physicians and scientists at 13 different sites in the united States and Canada. Incidentally, these sites are presently actively recruiting patients.

Stem Cells, Inc., has enrolled and randomized 19 of the 40 total patients in this statistically powered, single-blind, randomized controlled, cohort II.

The Phase 2 study, “Study of Human Central Nervous System (CNS) Stem Cell Transplantation in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury,” will determine the safety and efficacy of transplanting the company’s proprietary human neural stem cells (HuCNS-SC cells) into patients with traumatic injury of the cervical region of the spinal cord.

Cohort I is an open label dose-ranging cohort in six AIS-A or AIS-B subjects. For those of you not familiar with the American Spinal Injury Impairment Scale (ASI A-E scale), here is a summary of the classification scheme:

ASI – A = Complete paralysis; No sensory or motor function is preserved in the sacral segments S4-5.
ASI – B = Sensory Incomplete; Sensory but not motor function is preserved below the neurological level and includes the sacral segments S4-5 (light touch or pin prick at S4-5 or deep anal pressure) AND no motor function is preserved more than three levels below the motor level on either side of the body.
ASI – C = Motor Incomplete; Motor function is preserved below the neurological level**, and more than half of key muscle functions below the neurological level of injury (NLI) have a muscle grade less than 3 (Grades 0-2).
ASI – D = Motor Incomplete; Motor function is preserved below
the neurological level**, and at least half (half or more) of key muscle functions below the NLI have a muscle grade > 3.
ASI – E = Normal; If sensation and motor function as tested with the ISNCSCI are graded as normal in all segments, and the patient had prior deficits, then the AIS grade is E. Someone without an initial SCI does not receive an AIS grade.
Cohort II is a randomized, controlled, single-blinded cohort in forty AIS-B subjects. Cohort III, which will only be conducted at the discretion of the sponsor, is an open-label arm that involves six AIS-C subjects.
The primary efficacy outcome will focus on changes in the upper extremity strength as measured in the hands, arms, and shoulders.  This trial will enroll up to 52 subjects.
StemCells, Inc. has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of their HuCNS-SC cell in preclinical studies in laboratory rodents.  Additional Phase I studies yielded positive human safety data.  Furthermore, completed and ongoing clinical studies in which its proprietary HuCNS-SC cells have been transplanted directly into all three components of the central nervous system: the brain, the spinal cord and the retina of the eye, have further demonstrated the safety of HuCNS SC cells in human patients.
StemCells, Inc. clinicians and scientists believe that HuCNS-SC cells may have broad therapeutic application for many diseases and disorders of the CNS. Because the transplanted HuCNS-SC cells have been shown to engraft and survive long-term, there is the possibility of a durable clinical effect following a single transplantation.
The HuCNS-SC platform technology is a highly purified composition of human neural stem cells (tissue-derived or “adult” stem cells). Manufactured under cGMP standards, the Company’s HuCNS-SC cells are purified, expanded in culture, cryopreserved, and then stored as banks of cells, ready to be made into individual patient doses when needed.